Ita Fitriana

Program Doktor (S-3) Ilmu Linguistik Fakultas Ilmu Budaya

Universitas Udayana


The study entitled “Analysis of Conversation Implicature and Conventional Implicature is a discourse analysis dialog. In daily conversation, people used to implicatures. The discourse of daily implicatures contains special messages or implied meanings contained. This happens because in each other often happen a miss communication. In other words, lack of awareness of implicatures contained in daily life. The problem studied in this research is how the picture implicatures discourse of daily conversation. In answer to the problem of this research using a descriptive method that describes and reveals facts. The finding of this study in particular can be used as a means for the public understanding of the language daily conversation containing implicatures.

Keywords: conversation, implicatures, conventional. 



Acting the Intangible: Hints of Politeness in Non-Verbal Form

Authors:  Jumanto Jumanto ,Sarif Rizal , Raden Nugroho    


This review paper has explored politeness in non-verbal form to come to
hints for indicating the ideology. Politeness in non-verbal form is
researched by reviewing verbal politeness theories through interpretive
techniques, and then the data in form of interpreted hints based on the
reviews are analyzed by employing a coding technique. The six non-verbal
hints of politeness found out based on the theoretical reviews are
silence for politeness, gestures for politeness, gifts for politeness,
observance of norms, rules, and regulations for politeness, adjusted
behavior for politeness, and performance for politeness. The hints
expectedly provide a sufficient account for non-verbal politeness in
interactions or communication between a speaker and a hearer. The
findings also encourage promoting harmony among speakers of languages in
non-verbal interactions or communication, especially in formal
situations or in the general public. The hints are hopefully also worth
considering in the context of English language teaching and learning
across languages and cultures in the world.



On Speech Acts by I Dewa Putu Wijana

On Speech Acts

I Dewa Putu Wijana
Universitas Gadjah Mada


This paper is intended to give insights to the readers about the development of speech act theories which include categories, characteristics, validities, and strategies. The research begins with the classification of speech acts done by some experts and continues with the description of characteristics and validities carried out especially by Austin and Searle, and ends with speech act strategies developed by Parker and Riley, using examples taken from Indonesian, Javanese, Balinese, and English, four languages that the writer masters relatively well. Most Indonesian, Balinese, and Javanese data together with their context are created intuitively as a native or nearly-native speaker while some English utterances are created and the others extracted from pragmatic textbooks used as references in this study. Research findings show that there are various types of speech acts, and each speech act has its own validity conditions. Among them, illocutionary acts constitute the focal point of pragmatics’ studies. The description shows that every expert of pragmatics uses different categories in classifying illocutionary acts, and the kinds of strategies used to express them.

Keywords: pragmatics, speech act, speech act strategy.

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Muka dalam Perspektif Pragmatik

Ramdan Sukmawan

Sastra Inggris Universitas Muhammadiyah Sukabumi

Pragmatik adalah cabang ilmu linguistik yang mengkaji penggunaan bahasa dalam komunikasi yang memperhatikan makna yang dikomunikasikan oleh penutur dan ditafsirkan oleh lawan tuturnya. Aspek pragmatik yang ada salah satunya adalah konsep muka. Konsep muka ini jelas sekali berhubungan dengan proses komunikasi dalam menjaga sebuah kesan yang baik karena dalam kegiatan interaksi sosial manusia membutuhkan muka untuk menjaga citra dirinya (Guan dan Lee, 2017). Muka merupakan aspek penting dalam proses interaksi manusia. Muka dipertimbangkan sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai, muka yang ditawarkan dan diperlihatkan seseorang dalam berkomunikasi dengan lawan bicaranya akan sangat memengaruhi citra dirinya apakah seseorang itu memberikan atau menawarkan muka negatif atau muka positif. Hal ini akan terlihat dari representasi muka yang berbeda-beda ketika seseorang melakukan tindak tutur dalam interaksinya.

Lanjutkan membaca

Pragmatics is a Matter of Probabilities in Language Use

Jumanto Jumanto PhD in Linguistics (Pragmatics), Universitas Indonesia, 2006. Dosen Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro Semarang.

Linguistics is deterministic within more of etic perspectives. Pragmatics is probabilistic within more of emic perspectives, researching how politeness happens (harmony/FSA-FTA management); how impoliteness happens (disharmony/face-threat/agression); or how im/politeness does not happen, as meaning interaction is sociopragmatically allowable or strategic or politic (interaction-based face-threat). Language use is indeed a matter of probabilities (Jumanto, 2014; 2017; Leech, 1983). In most recent development of pragmatics, the so-called emic perspectives may be elaborated into the so-called emic-concepts and emic practices (Haugh, 2011).

Salam Pragmatik!