Jumanto Jumanto PhD in Linguistics (Pragmatics), Universitas Indonesia, 2006. Dosen Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro Semarang.
Linguistics is deterministic within more of etic perspectives. Pragmatics is probabilistic within more of emic perspectives, researching how politeness happens (harmony/FSA-FTA management); how impoliteness happens (disharmony/face-threat/agression); or how im/politeness does not happen, as meaning interaction is sociopragmatically allowable or strategic or politic (interaction-based face-threat). Language use is indeed a matter of probabilities (Jumanto, 2014; 2017; Leech, 1983). In most recent development of pragmatics, the so-called emic perspectives may be elaborated into the so-called emic-concepts and emic practices (Haugh, 2011).